Unpack the Curriculum

Understand the Australian Curriculum: Digital Technologies

Band F-2
Band Description

Learning in Digital Technologies builds on concepts, skills and processes developed in the Early Years Learning Framework. It focuses on developing foundational skills in computational thinking and an awareness of personal experiences using digital systems.

By the end of Year 2, students will have had opportunities to create a range of digital solutions through guided play and integrated learning, such as using robotic toys to navigate a map or recording science data with software applications.

In Foundation – Year 2, students begin to learn about common digital systems and patterns that exist within data they collect. Students organise, manipulate and present this data, including numerical, categorical, text, image, audio and video data, in creative ways to create meaning.

Students use the concept of abstraction when defining problems, to identify the most important information, such as the significant steps involved in making a sandwich. They begin to develop their design skills by conceptualising algorithms as a sequence of steps for carrying out instructions, such as identifying steps in a process or controlling robotic devices.

Students describe how information systems meet information, communication and/or recreational needs.

Through discussion with teachers, students learn to apply safe and ethical practices to protect themselves and others as they interact online for learning and communicating.

Achievement Standard

By the end of Year 2, students identify how common digital systems (hardware and software) are used to meet specific purposes. They use digital systems to represent simple patterns in data in different ways.

Students design solutions to simple problems using a sequence of steps and decisions. They collect familiar data and display them to convey meaning. They create and organise ideas and information using information systems, and share information in safe online environments.

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Hiding details of an idea, problem or solution that are not relevant, to focus on a manageable number of aspects.

Abstraction does not appear explicitly in the content descriptions.

However, abstraction underpins the design and progression of content descriptions between band levels for each concept.

Digital systems
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Recognise and explore digital systems (hardware and software components) for a purpose (ACTDIK001)


Systems explores the composition of systems and their use in all aspects of our lives.


Networks describes how we connect systems together and use them to transmit data.


Security is concerned with how we protect the data stored in and transmitted by systems.

Recognise digital systems

Recognise and name digital systems.

Students name digital systems (e.g. smart phone or laptop) that they interact with at home and school, and recognise that they are digital systems.

Explore digital systems with purpose

Play with and use digital systems in meaningful ways.

Students play (with guidance) and use different systems to explore what they do and how they work. They match digital systems to specific purposes (e.g. using a phone to call a family member).

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Networks in band F-2.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Security in band F-2.
Data representation
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Recognise and explore patterns in data and represent data as pictures, symbols and diagrams (ACTDIK002)


Representation explores how we model, construct and describe data.

Data types

Data types describe the internal representation of data in digital systems and the operations that can be performed on it.

Recognise patterns

Recognise patterns in data and make generalisations from those patterns.

Students notice patterns in data and make simple generalisations (e.g. organise objects by colour or size) and predictions (e.g. how the pattern continues).

Represent data using symbols

Express data (including ideas, objects, actions) using pictures and symbols.

Students use a picture or symbol to represent an idea, but know the picture is not the data itself (e.g. the Australian Aboriginal flag represents the people, the land, and the sun).

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Data types in band F-2.
Data collection
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Collect, explore and sort data, and use digital systems to present the data creatively (ACTDIP003)

Acquire data

Acquire data examines how we collect and access data from a variety of sources.

Manage data

Manage data is concerned with the processes we use to facilitate how we use data.

Collect data

Gather and record data by counting and measuring.

Students gather data by observing, counting, and measuring objects in their school and home environments (e.g. recording the pets at home and counting them by type).

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Manage data in band F-2.
Data interpretation
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Collect, explore and sort data, and use digital systems to present the data creatively (ACTDIP003)

Organise data

Organise data explores the ways we order, sort and arrange data to assist us with interpretation in different contexts.

Visualise data

Visualise data describes the many ways we present data in its raw and summarised form for communication and further analysis.

Organise data

Organise data by classifying, grouping and sorting.

Students explore data by classifying, grouping, and sorting (e.g. ordering students by height; grouping photos of pets by their type).

Visualise data

Present data in various ways to summarise data.

Students present data in different ways to answer simple questions (e.g. use a table or pictograph to discover the most common pets at home).

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Follow, describe and represent a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve simple problems (ACTDIP004)

Problem definition

Problem definition is the process we follow and considerations we make to determine and describe the problems we intend to solve.


Constraints describe the restricting factors we face when solving problems, and how we factor these into our planned solutions.


Decomposition is the process of breaking a problem into more manageable pieces so it can be understood and solved.

Familiar problems

Simple problems that are already familiar to students.

Students investigate familiar and easily understood problems, with few complications or steps required to solve them (e.g. deciding what to wear depending on the day and weather).

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Constraints in band F-2.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Decomposition in band F-2.
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Follow, describe and represent a sequence of steps and decisions (algorithms) needed to solve simple problems (ACTDIP004)

Follow algorithms

Follow algorithms is the process of performing the steps required to solve a problem.

Design algorithms

Design algorithms captures the solution design we undertake to develop an automated solution to a problem.

Algorithm constructs

Algorithm constructs are the building blocks we use to define our algorithms in a form digital systems can execute.

Follow algorithms

Follow an ordered sequence of steps to solve a simple problem or complete a task.

Students follow a short ordered sequence of steps and make decisions to solve a simple problem (e.g follow a recipe or directions to reach a location).

Represent algorithms

Represent a clear, ordered sequence of steps and decisions using words and images.

Students describe the steps and decisions (in the correct order) required to solve a simple problem (e.g. write, say, draw, or photograph the steps needed to make a sandwich).

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Design algorithms in band F-2.
Sequence of steps

An sequence of steps (instructions) where order might or might not matter.

Students identify the steps needed to solve a problem, and understand when their order is important (e.g. socks must go on before shoes) or when they can be reordered (e.g. jumper can go on before or after shoes).

Branching (decisions)

Branching involves following different steps based on a yes/no decision.

Students identify the decisions needed to solve a problem and the next steps to follow in each case (e.g. if it is raining, take a raincoat, otherwise take a hat).

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The content descriptions do not explicitly address Implementation in band F-2.
Digital Solutions

Digital solutions are computer programs implemented with a programming language (code).

Programming constructs

Programming constructs are the fundamental principles of program control flow we use in programming languages.

Programming paradigms

Programming paradigms are the underlying philosophies and approaches that are used in the structure of computer programs.

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Digital Solutions in band F-2.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Programming constructs in band F-2.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Programming paradigms in band F-2.
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Explore how people safely use common information systems to meet information, communication and recreation needs (ACTDIP005)

Information systems

Information systems describe the solutions developed by people that make use of data and systems.


Users are the people who benefit from or control information systems.

Evaluation considerations

Evaluation considerations is concerned with how we factor the intended and unintended impacts of our solutions into our designs and implementation strategies.

Information systems

A combination of digital systems, data, processes, and people that interact to create, control, and communicate information.

Students describe how familiar information systems support needs at home and school (e.g. some things are possible with paint software that are not possible without it, like experimenting with colours on a photo before painting the surface).


Individual people (the students and their family members and friends).

Students describe how familiar information systems meet the needs of individuals (e.g. how different family members use a tablet for different needs – play videos, read the news, or follow a recipe).


The impact digital systems have had on our ability to solve a range of problems that enrich and enhance our lives.

Students understand that we use systems to store and access information all the time, and how using that information helps us learn about our environment, interactions and leisure activities.

Human–Human Interactions
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Create and organise ideas and information using information systems independently and with others, and share these with known people in safe online environments (ACTDIP006)

Create information

Creating information involves using digital systems to present ideas and information.

Communicate and collaborate

Communicate and collaborate involves using digital systems to share information and work with others.

Plan and manage

Plan and manage involves organising and controlling processes, people and resources in the development of solutions.

Create ideas and information

Using digital technologies to manipulate data and present a product.

Students use familiar information systems to share information with others (e.g. using presentation software to share holiday photos).


Completing a structured task or activity in small groups with defined roles.

Students create individual pieces of work that contribute to a group task (e.g. each student contributes a recipe and photo of their favourite food to create a class recipe book).

Cyber safety

Sharing ideas and information with approved people in teacher-managed environments.

Students share their work online with each other and approved family members under teacher supervision (e.g. through student portfolios in a school parent portal).

The content descriptions do not explicitly address Plan and manage in band F-2.
Human–Computer Interactions
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The content descriptions do not explicitly address Human–Computer Interactions in band F-2.
User experience

User experience goes beyond user interfaces to encompass a user's perceptions and responses when interacting with a digital system.

Evaluate designs

Evaluate designs describes the considerations and design decisions we make when designing digital systems.

The content descriptions do not explicitly address User experience in band F-2.
The content descriptions do not explicitly address Evaluate designs in band F-2.